Potenciális kulturális örökség értékű ásvány- és kőzet-típuslelőhelyek és ásványtani múzeumok Romániában

Mineral and rock occurences of potential cultural heritage value and mineral museums in Romania


  • Ágnes GÁL
  • Sándor SZAKÁCS
  • Corina IONESCU


típuslelőhely, kőzet, ásvány, múzeum, kulturális örökség


Type sites are geographically defined locations where important geological terms (mineral and rock names, fossil taxa, stratotypes, etc.) originate and where their material equivalents were firstly identified and described. As part of classical geological culture and literature, type sites are inherently of universal or regional value. Likewise, museums that preserve and exhibit type specimens of minerals and rocks, rare and scientifically or aesthetically outstanding mineral specimens, can be considered part of the cultural heritage. In the Carpatho-Pannonian region of Eastern Europe, including Romania, there is a high number of geological type specimens [5]. Currently, IMA-CNMMN has authenticated 37 minerals from 15 type sites, presently located in Romania. Săcărâmb (Nagyág) in the Southern Apuseni Mountains (9 mineral names) and Baia Sprie (Felsőbánya) in the Eastern Carpathians (7 new minerals) are among the richest mineral-type sites. Băița Bihor (Rézbánya), Fața Băii (Facebánya), where the chemical element and the indigenous element group tellurium mineral was discovered!), Ocna de Fier (Vaskő), Cavnic (Kapnikbánya) and Baia Mare (Nagybánya) are also outstanding type sites, each with at least 2 new mineral species described for the first time. Wollastonite and rhodocrosite are included in the list of common minerals with type localities in Romania. Despite their world fame, rarity and scientific importance, these minerals and rocks and museums do not receive the attention and appreciation they deserve. None of them are included in the list of 49 protected "geological reserves" in Romania. Here we propose to promote and protect at least four of the type localities - Săcărâmb for 9 new minerals, Baia Sprie for 7 new minerals, Fața Băii for the tellurium element discovered here and Poieni for the 'dacite' - as geotypes of outstanding scientific interest and as part of the World Geological and Cultural Heritage.


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Ciobanu, C.L., Brugger, J., Cook, N.J., Mills, S.J., Elliott, P., Damian, G., Damian, F., 2014: Graţianite, MnBi2S4, a new mineral from the Bǎiţa Bihor skarn, Romania, American Mineralogist, 99 (5-6), 1163–1170.

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