A mecseki kőszénbányászat és a mélyművelés kockázatai
Coal Mining and Risks Linked to Their Underground Mining Operations in the Mecsek Mountains (SE Transdanubia, Hungary) / Mineritul de cărbuni din Munţii Mecsek şi riscurile exploatării subterane
The coal seams of Mecsek Coal Formation (MCF) lie in three little coal basin, near Pécs and Komló, as well as in North Mecsek at the border of the following settlements Szászvár, Máza, Váralja, Nagymányok. In Hungary, the Lower Liassic coal in the Mecsek Mts is the highest rank, from high to low volatile bituminous coal, and the only one fossil raw material convertible into coke. However, the coal seams weighted average analysis indicated that the product of mined seams may characteristically be high in ash and sulfur. It should also be mentioned that these mines grouped in classes according to the firedamp hazard, are highly explosive and the most dangerous workplaces in our country. Underground coal mines in the Mecsek Mts were in the most hazardous class, Class III, because the amount of methane measured was consistently greater than 15 m3/t of coal produced. Despite all the risks and hazards, for over two hundred years, coal has been mined in the Mecsek Mts.
Coal mining in the Mecsek Mts was started on outcrops in a18th century due to wood shortage and the drastic rise in the price of charcoal. Although a big number of discoveries were announced, no significant mining activity started as yet, due to to lack of demand. In the growth of coal production, the First Danube Steamshipping Company played a decisive role between 1850s and 1938. After the Second World War, on the basis of the new industrial policy, "iron and steel countries" increased coal production up to the mid-1960s. However, due to the unprofitable production of underground coal mines, these mines were closed down in the early 2000s. In the present work we briefly overview the geology of MCF and more than 200 years of coal mining history as well as risks of underground coal mining in the Mecsek Mts.
În lucrarea de faţă prezentăm succint geologia Formaţiunii Cărbunilor de Mecsek şi istoria de peste 200 de ani a mineritului cărbunilor de aici, precum şi riscurile exploatării subterane din Munţii Mecsek.